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Hearing loss can be caused by a number of different factors including aging, injury, noise exposure, infection and heredity. Those factors affect the auditory nerve, causing a sensorineural hearing loss, the most common type of hearing loss. But did you know an ear infection can also cause hearing loss? Hearing loss caused by an ear infection is referred to as a conductive hearing loss. Infection in the middle ear can cause fluid to build up, obstructing the movement of the eardrum and the tiny bones attached to it.
Ear infection hearing loss is a type of conductive hearing loss
Conductive hearing loss affects the outer or middle ear rather than the auditory nerve, the way sensorineural hearing loss does. Conductive hearing loss is commonly caused by an obstruction in the middle ear. The middle ear moves to send sounds to your auditory nerve. Any obstruction can prevent sounds from passing through the middle ear and cause hearing loss. A buildup of wax, fluid in the middle ear, or a hole in the ear drum can each cause conductive hearing loss.
“Otitis media” is the medical term for an ear infection affecting the middle ear. The infection can cause a buildup of fluid, making it difficult for the eardrum and the ossicular chain to work together to move sounds to the auditory nerve. The ossicular chain in the middle ear is made up of the three smallest bones in your body. Called the malleus, incus and stapes, each one is as small as a single grain of rice.
Ear infection hearing loss is often temporary
Hearing loss caused by an ear infection is usually temporary and subsides after treatment. Your physician may choose to treat your ear infection with antibiotics. If the antibiotics successfully treat the infection, your hearing should return to normal. If you have a history of recurrent ear infections, your physician may insert a tube in your ear drum to help the fluid drain.
Eliminating the buildup of fluid relieves the pain and pressure that often accompanies an ear infection and can prevent the eardrum from rupturing. If fluid builds up without resolution, the pressure can cause your eardrum to rupture.
A history of recurrent ear infections can also lead to tympanosclerosis, which is the thickening or scarring of the tympanic membrane. A perforated eardrum and tympanosclerosis adversely affect the mobility of the eardrum and reduce hearing acuity. If your hearing does not return to normal following treatment, your physician and hearing professional may recommend hearing aids to treat the unresolved hearing loss.
What to do if you think you have hearing loss
If you have trouble hearing, it is important to have your hearing tested by a hearing professional, so the degree and type of hearing loss can be identified. Your hearing professional will identify the type of hearing loss you have and discuss the best treatment option with you following your hearing evaluation. Click here to find a hearing professional near you.
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